Stroke, also known as cerebro-vascular accident, is caused by a disturbance in blood supply to the brain. Stroke affects millions of Americans every year. The result is ischemic brain injury which means that part of the brain has suffered from lack of oxygen and this has resulted in vital tissue destruction. Symptoms vary depending on the anatomic location of the event and extent and duration of the tissue loss. After acute management, long term healing must occur which requires management of swelling and neovascularization of damaged tissue. Researchers particularly in Europe have been actively studying the use of mesenchymal stem cells to help promote healing after ischemic brain injury.